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Chickenpox

Varicella also known as chickenpox is an acute infectious disease related to the number of childhood infections, although they are sick and adults. Those who are not able in childhood to resemble painted in marvelous green peas, can develop when childhood is left far behind.

As the virus enters the body

The fact is that DNA-containing virus of chickenpox has a very high infectivity (100%), transmitted by airborne droplets and by household, spread by coughing and sneezing to a distance of several meters. That is, for the first time to be in contact with patients with chickenpox and not get sick is very difficult. The varicella zoster virus is a type of herpes viruses and is similar to surrounding herpes. In the external environment is not resistant dies at low temperatures, under the action of ultraviolet radiation and antiseptics.

Rarer route of transmission of chickenpox, the so-called vertical, when a pregnant woman sick with chickenpox and infect the fetus. In early pregnancy this leads to deformities in the fetus, in the later provokes the birth of children suffering from chickenpox or been ill to her in utero.

What happens next? Symptoms

After the introduction of epithelial cells in the naso and oropharynx, the virus is carried by the flow of blood throughout the body, integrates its deoxyribonucleic acid into the cells of the new host, causing all the symptoms. Due to the introduction in the upper layers of the skin appears first spotted (expansion of capillaries), and then a rash with a characteristic impression in the form of a navel in the center of the lesions.

Vesicles filled with clear serous contents, which can thicken in contact with bacteria and festering because of scratching (itchy rash due to allergic reaction to the virus). The bubbles cover the face, arms, legs, chest, abdomen, back, scalp, leaving a free hand and feet. In some forms of chickenpox, called abortive, rash may be presented with rare items, just a few bubbles on the skin. It can also spread to the mucous membranes.

The basic mechanisms of bubble – detachment of the epithelium, swelling and inflammation of tissues under the action of inflammatory mediators.

The incubation period (from infection to the first eruption) when the chickenpox lasts from 11 to 21 days. Infected contagious the last ten days of the incubation period and during the period of the emergence of new bubbles until, until the last bubble less than 5 days.

Immune response

The body responds to any infectious aggression by the production of antibodies. In the acute phase of chickenpox in increased blood immunoglobulin M Increased immunoglobulin E, Allergy helps during illness.

Immunoglobulin G produced during infection and remain for life, protecting the wearer from repeated diseases chickenpox.

Immunoglobulin G produced during infection and remain for life, protecting the wearer from repeated diseases chickenpox. By the way, the immunoglobulins of this class, obtained from the mother, the babies first six months of life protected against the incidence of chickenpox. Although low titers of these immunoglobulins even the baby can get sick.

Features of chickenpox in infants

Chickenpox in children the first year of life is characterized by a severity compared to older age groups. Popping lesions of the internal organs, bullous form with the formation of huge blisters, hemorrhagic variant with hemorrhages in soft tissues and organs. Easier join a secondary bacterial infection with the clinic pyoderma.

Damage to the central nervous system consists of peripheral neuritis and cranial nerves, and intracranial hypertension, meningitis and arachnoiditis. Mortality from chickenpox is highest in this age group of patients. Causes of death the infectious-toxic shock or multiple organ failure.

Features of chickenpox in adults

Adults suffer more from the effects of intoxication have chickenpox occurs with higher temperature and severe pruritus. Rash abundant with the slower reverse development. Frequent neurological complications such as inflammation or paresis of the trigeminal and facial nerves.

Diagnosis of chickenpox

Often limited to the collection of medical history (contact with patients), life history (it was not chickenpox before), examination. There are virological method (pathogens isolated from the contents of the bubbles and epithelia). Reaction of immunofluorescence allows detecting viral antibodies. Serological tests determine the presence and breeding classes of immunoglobulins M and G the PCR Reaction detects viral DNA.

Treatment of chickenpox

Before the advent of antiviral drugs the rash of chickenpox was treated with alcoholic solution of brilliant green (easier to say, green paint). This wonderful antiseptic used to this day. It dries the rash, kills bacteria that can cause suppuration bubbles, mark the lesions, allowing to accurately determining the date of the last rash.

Of antiviral drugs use zovirax, acyclovir, valcyclovir (12 years), famciclovir (adults) tablets and injection. In recent years, the drug groprinosin. Antibacterially drugs connected with secondary bacterial infections. Of symptomatic drugs used antipyretics (paracetamol, ibuprofen, effective, Nurofen) and antihistamines, preferring drugs of the second and tretego generations (loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, pain, sucking, fenistil).

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