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Migraine is a recurrent attacks of acute headache, usually unilateral and throbbing, which last from 4 to 72 hours. Migraine is a very common disease, not related to race, place of residence or climate.

Women suffer more than men, a ratio of 4:1. Migraine attacks occur in adolescence and early adulthood, the years tend to disappear (in men, usually after 45 years, women - to menopause). There are two main types of migraine:

  1. Usual migraine, also known as migraine without aura
  2. Classical migraine, also known as migraine with aura

In most cases, the aura indicates symptoms that cause visual disturbances. Other symptoms associated with aura - disorders of hearing and other senses, confusion, motor and mental disorders. Aura phase usually lasts from 4 to 60 minutes. From classical migraine (ie migraine with aura) suffer approximately 15% of all patients.

Causes of migraine

Migraine symptoms are caused by changes in cerebral blood vessels, but the reason for this change remains unknown. Approximately 70% of patients have a family history of migraine. Also contribute to the occurrence of migraine following factors: stress, nerves and physical stress, dietary factors (cheese, chocolate, nuts, fish), alcohol (mostly beer and red wine, champagne), hormonal reasons (menstruation, oral contraceptives), sleep ( deficiency or excess), weather factors (weather changes, climate change).

Migraine symptoms

Typically, migraine is acute, increasing the pulsating pain that is localized in one half of the skull. Other symptoms of migraine:

  • Increased sensitivity to light and sound
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Drowsiness
  • General weakness
  • Violation of motor function
  • Visual disturbances (flashing before his eyes light flashes, zigzags, spirals, etc.). This so-called stage aura preceding the migraine attack.

During a migraine's seizure light and sound can be unbearably annoying, and the motion can cause pain. Migraine attacks begin suddenly, but in some cases, patients may feel fatigue, depression or craving for sweets.

As an acute headache may be a symptom of other illnesses should consult a doctor if pain continues unabated for 24 hours and is accompanied by fever or the appearance of rigidity of the neck muscles. You should also seek medical help if a headache is accompanied by unusual symptoms.

Prevention of migraine

Several factors can contribute to migraines, so they should be avoided. Such factors include the following:

  • Stress and depression
  • Molestation or famine
  • Smoking
  • Food products (cheese, chocolate, nuts, fish, Chinese food and bananas)
  • Lack or excess of sleep
  • Drinks containing caffeine (coffee, tea and cola)
  • Alcohol, especially red wine
  • Oral contraceptives
  • Travel - flights and related disorders biorhythms
  • Climate Change and familiar environment
  • Hormonal changes in women (during pregnancy, menstruation or menopause)

Sometimes it is difficult to determine the causes of migraine - this is often not a factor, and their combination. However, even discovered a trigger can only call some migraine attacks, but not all. In addition, individual risk factors - that is dangerous for one, is perfectly safe to another.

Diagnosis of migraine

For the diagnosis of migraine therapist enough to learn about the symptoms and frequency of seizures. Also conduct examinations and appoint some tests.

Also, the doctor may recommend for 2-3 months to keep a diary to trace the pattern of attacks. If a migraine can be traced a pattern, it indicates the effect of certain factors.

Treatment of migraine

If you feel the approach of migraines, stop all the classes, lie down in a dark room where no one heard street noise and take a tablet of paracetamol or aspirin. If these measures prove ineffective, the doctor may prescribe other medicines. This drugs are effective if they take them at the beginning of the attack, especially if the headache is accompanied by nausea.

If you are plagued by migraines once or twice a week, doctor may prescribe medication for prevention migraine.

If migraine occurs under the influence of certain factors, it is best to avoid this factor in the future.

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