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Rules for drug traffic

Opening the package of pills, are we always pay attention to the small leaflet with recommendations for receiving the drug? Meanwhile, only scrupulous adherence to the instructions of annotation allows to achieve the expected effect of the drug.

Dosage forms

Inside are drugs in the form of solutions, powders, tablets, capsules and pills. Used these funds to obtain the effect within the gastrointestinal tract (eg antihelminthic drugs, laxatives) and to induce systemic effects in drug absorption into the blood. Powders and pills are now used infrequently - such dosage forms receding into the past.

To prevent irritation of certain substances on the gastric mucosa, used tablets, film coating, resistant to gastric juice, but decomposing in the alkaline environment of the intestine. There are pills and a multilayer shell, providing a gradual, long-term, the release of the active principle, which allows to prolong the therapeutic effect.

The most modern and widely used in the global pharmaceutical dosage form - a gelatin capsule. The reason for the popularity of instant container for drugs in that it allows precise dosing of the drug, and also provides high air tightness and insulation of the contents from environmental factors.

Tablets and capsules is a ready to eat forms. Allowed to crush and grind the pills, not coated for easier swallowing or to reduce the dose. Coated tablets should not be milled, as in this case violated the protective film and, hence, the active ingredient can be released earlier than they should. This leads to irritation of the gastric mucosa, and in some cases to the inactivation of the drug. The capsule protects the drug, and therefore should not be opened, except when the manufacturer indicates the need for extracting powder from the capsule. For example, for the reception children Linex, which manufactures the drug company recommends to open the capsule and dissolve the contents in the liquid.

In order for the drug to work, he has soaked, it is to enter the bloodstream. After absorption through the stomach wall active agent through the blood enters the liver where they may be subject to significant transformations. That's why, sometimes dose of medicine taken by mouth than the dose of intravenous means.

On the processes of absorption influences the pH in the stomach which is 1 - 3, in the duodenum 5 - 6, and in small and large intestine - about 8. Hence the conclusion that drug-acid easily absorbed in the stomach, and the foundation - in the colon or small intestine. Acidic environment of the stomach destroys some medications, for example - benzylpenicillin.

A drug which has got into the digestive tract, act as enzymes that can inactivate the protein and polypeptide agents (vasopressin, insulin, etc.), as well as some hormones (testosterone, progesterone).

Certain drugs are not swallowed, but dissolved in the mouth under the tongue. The classic example - nitroglycerin to relieve pain in his heart. Such a way of introducing a substance into the body features a rapid absorption of drugs, as abundantly supply blood to the mouth. In addition, the active substance during absorption in the oral cavity does not enter directly into the liver, and therefore does not undergo significant changes. This explains the speed and effectiveness of drugs used under the tongue.

The important point, which determines the absorption of the drug - food intake. Product composition and the interval between food and medications affect the safety of the active ingredient of the drug. Keep in mind, and the stimulating effect of food on the secretion of gastric juice and hydrochloric acid. For example, iron salts, a large amount of carbohydrate protein and fat in food intake violate tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin.

When to take medicines?

In the absence of special instructions, take medication online without prescription, should be 20 - 30 minutes before eating, when they are best absorbed, but it is not true for all drugs. The fact that the acid-alkaline reaction in the stomach and lower-lying parts of the digestive tract before meals, during, and after a meal is changing. If the conservation and suction specific drugs, a certain acid-base reaction, such a drug must be taken occasionally during the meal, and sometimes - after. For example, the means irritating the gastric mucosa (acetylsalicylic acid), it is recommended to take during or after a meal.

Correct the drug affects the duration of its action. For example, the antacid used in the treatment of gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers, while taking on an empty stomach, there are about half an hour, and at the reception 1 hour after a meal - "work" 3 - 4 hours.

Keep in mind that to maintain constant drug concentrations in blood, the medication must be taken regularly at regular intervals. That is, the means taken 3 times a day should be drunk every 8 hours, and not only during the day.

What to drink?

What we wash down with medication, can significantly influence the effectiveness of the drug. Remember, it is best if there are no special instructions, drink clean water. Water is a good solvent and has no effect on the active ingredient.

Many people think that medication is useful to drink milk. Indeed, this product reduces the irritating effect on the stomach wall, for example, acetylsalicylic acid and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Recommend milk drink and drugs iodine, vitamins A, D, E and K. Milk decreases the effectiveness of drugs that are similar in structure to proteins - cardiac glycosides, caffeine, antiulcer drugs (cimetidine, ranitidine). You should not drink milk enzymes (pancreatin, mezim). Milk inactivates tetracycline drugs as contained in the milk of calcium forms with components of drugs insoluble compound. Sometimes in the annotation to the drug can be found direct mention of non-milk consumption. For example, a manufacturer hilak Fort points out: "take a small amount of liquid (except milk).

You should not drink medicines and tea. The fact that the tea contains tannic acid, which forms insoluble compounds with nitrogen-based means, the latter a lot: papaverine, codeine, aminophylline, cardiac glycosides, etc.

Acidic fruit and vegetable juices a negative impact on the effectiveness of such antibiotics as erythromycin, sumamed, ampicillin, and, conversely, significantly enhances the activity (up to a toxic effect) of aspirin, nitrofuranov (furagin, furazolidone), acetaminophen, ibuprofen. There is evidence that serious complications may occur when used with medications grapefruit juice. The reason is that the components of the juice, affecting the liver enzyme system, alter the action of a large group of chemicals that lead to unpredictable consequences taking the drug.

Sometimes in order to reduce the irritating effect of appropriate medication to wash down with jelly. Should just remember that slimy broth slows absorption.

Alkaline mineral water to wash down suggestions sulfonamides (Biseptol, sulfalena sulfodimetoksin). Mineral water also enhances the absorption of analgin, tetracycline, sedatives.

If you take with antibiotics tablets "Coke" or mineral water, in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract may form insoluble iron complexes, which reduces the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy.

Absolutely can not take medication with alcoholic beverages. Alcohol significantly alters the transformation of drugs into the body that can lead to serious complications.

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